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Matthew J. Connelly Oral History Interview, November 28, 1967

Oral History Interview with
Matthew J. Connelly

Chief investigator for the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program (the Truman Committee), 1941-44, Executive Assistant to Senator and Vice President Truman, July 1944-April 1945; and Appointments Secretary to the President, 1945-53.

New York, New York
November 28, 1967
By Jerry N. Hess

[Notices and Restrictions | Interview Transcript | Additional Connelly Oral History Transcripts]


Notice
This is a transcript of a tape-recorded interview conducted for the Harry S. Truman Library. A draft of this transcript was edited by the interviewee but only minor emendations were made; therefore, the reader should remember that this is essentially a transcript of the spoken, rather than the written word.

Numbers appearing in square brackets (ex. [45]) within the transcript indicate the pagination in the original, hardcopy version of the oral history interview.

RESTRICTIONS
This oral history transcript may be read, quoted from, cited, and reproduced for purposes of research. It may not be published in full except by permission of the Harry S. Truman Library.

Opened May 1969
Harry S. Truman Library
Independence, Missouri

[Top of the Page | Notices and Restrictions | Interview Transcript | Additional Connelly Oral History Transcripts]



Oral History Interview with
Matthew J. Connelly

New York, New York
November 28, 1967
By Jerry N. Hess

[1]

HESS: Mr. Connelly, the primary interest in our interview is, of course, your relationship with Mr. Truman. What was that relationship and when did it begin?

CONNELLY: I did not meet the then Senator Truman until the day I walked into his office. I was recommended by Senator Lister Hill of Alabama. I was purposely trying to establish another relationship which Senator Hill had suggested as a trouble-shooter for the White House. Senator Hill called me one afternoon and said he would like to see me and to call him off the Senate floor. I made that appointment, and

[2]

Senator Hill took me back to his office in the Senate Office Building and there he said, "We just had a meeting today of the Military Affairs Committee," of which he was a member and of which Senator Truman was a member. Senator Hill told me that Senator Truman was going to have to have a very important investigation, and he wanted me to work on his committee. I was not very happy about it because of the original understanding I had with Senator Hill, however, I kept the appointment with Senator Truman on the following morning. I walked into his office; I had never met him, as I said before, so he said, "Come in." He said, "I know all about you. I know what you did in Missouri, Chicago, and other committees you've been on. We have a very peculiar situation here. I have been authorized to become chairman of this committee, however, it has not been determined what our appropriations are going

[3]

to be. I do not know what I can pay you, but I will say this to you, if you go along with me, you will never have any reason to regret it."

I replied, "Senator, I came in here to say no, but the way you talk is refreshing in Washington and you've got yourself a deal."

"Well, we're agreed, so we'll arrange for space and some of the mechanical things like handling the mail."

I said, "I'd be very happy to." And that's where it began.

HESS: Who was the first one hired for the staff of the Truman Committee?

CONNELLY: Matthew J. Connelly.

HESS: In one of the books I have read by Harry Aubrey Toulmin, Jr., Diary of Democracy, he mentions that "Fulton's first step was to

[4]

organize both a legal staff and a staff of investigators; in that he showed his capacity and from that organization much of the success of the Committee grew. One of his smart moves was to pick Matthew J. Connelly as his chief investigator, a keen, diligent and discreet man with an unusual grasp of governmental procedures," but Mr. Toulmin just had his chronology wrong, is that right, in saying that?

CONNELLY: Yes, he was in error on that, because Mr. Fulton was not hired as counsel to the committee until after I'd been appointed by Senator Truman.

HESS: He was hired the last day of March--March 31, 1941. Tell me about the staffing of the Truman Committee. You were the first one that Senator Truman got for the staff. Who came next? Just how was this staff set up and organized?

[5]

CONNELLY: The second appointment of the committee as far as I know, was Charles Patrick Clark, and Charles Patrick Clark did not know of my conversation with Senator Truman. We had previously worked together on the Committee to Investigate Campaign Expenditures under the chairmanship of Senator Gillette of Iowa. Charles Patrick Clark later told me that he was appointed to the committee through the good offices of Senator Smathers of New Jersey. He knew nothing about my previous conversation with Senator Truman, and amusingly he later took credit for getting me the job. So the first two appointments were myself and Charles Patrick Clark.

HESS: Toulmin goes on to say, "The first staff primarily consisted of Hugh Fulton as chief counsel, his assistant and later his successor, Rudolph Halley, Harold G. Robinson, its auditor,

[6]

Matthew Connelly, its chief investigator, and its present chief counsel, George Meader." So he left out Charles Patrick Clark but included the other men which we will get to here in just a minute.

One question I would like to ask before we get on to the men who served on the Truman Committee, could you tell me a little bit about the committees on the Hill that you had served for before this time? Just a little bit of your background on the Hill.

CONNELLY: Yes, my first experience on the Hill was an investigation of the relief program in Washington, D.C.

HESS: What time was that?

CONNELLY: That was in 1938. It was a joint committee of the House and Senate. We conducted an investigation of the relief program

[7]

in Washington, D.C.--in other words, the local welfare program. That lasted for a period of, I would say, about six months. Senator Thomas of Oklahoma was the chairman of that committee. From that I went to the House Appropriations Committee to investigate the WPA. The chairman of that committee was Congressman Tabor of New York--no, he was the ranking Republican member--the chairman was Clarence Cannon who was also chairman of the full Appropriations Committee. So from there I went to the Committee to Investigate Campaign Expenditures in the election in 1940. That was under the chairmanship of Senator Gillette. On that committee was Senator Hill of Alabama who I had worked under as chairman of the subcommittee to investigate the Kelly-Nash machine in Chicago. This was about four weeks before the election of 1940. From there Senator Hill, after the conclusion of the hearings in Chicago, asked me to go to

[8]

Alabama to make an investigation of the Willkie campaign. He was then campaigning for President. Which I did. After completion of that investigation, I returned to Washington and that is when Senator Hill suggested to me that he wanted me to go with Senator Truman.

HESS: Did you find that the background that you gained in serving on those other committees helped you in your duties on the Truman Committee?

CONNELLY: Well, it certainly did because I was conscious of one thing, I learned what members of Congress had to do--what their responsibilities were, what their problems were--and my number one job was to do the bidding of the chairman of that committee which I always found to be fair.

HESS: Mr. Connelly, what positions did you hold

[9]

on the staff?

CONNELLY: I held the position of Chief Investigator and that is all.

HESS: I have read that you and Charles Patrick Clark at different times held the job as Executive Assistant. Is that title incorrect?

CONNELLY: That title was never used on the committee.

HESS: Never used on the committee. Well, I have read in a couple of books that someone was assigned to help the chairman with some of the various duties and their title might have been Executive Assistant. That was just incorrect?

CONNELLY: That was incorrect.

HESS: Now, let's review a few of the people who served on the committee and if you could tell me what their respective backgrounds were,

[10]

roughly why these particular people were called in to be members of the committee--this is asking you to remember back quite a ways, but if they have any specific duties that you recall--any times that you may have worked with them--anything that might help scholars out in a better understanding of the people who served on the Truman Committee? Now the list I have is not complete.

CONNELLY: Are you referring to the members of the Truman Committee?

HESS: The staff.

CONNELLY: I think it should be the staff.

HESS: The staff of the Truman Committee, that's right. I'll ask you about the Senators a little later. That is quite right. Sometimes I say Truman Committee and what I mean is the staff and not the Senators, but we'll get into

[11]

those later. Now the ones that I have listed here I have in alphabetical order. The first is William Boyle, Jr.

CONNELLY: William Boyle, Jr. was a native of Kansas City, Missouri. He was hired by Senator Truman, the chairman. He had practiced law in Kansas City; he had been known to Truman for many years. When he arrived in Washington Senator Truman called me to his office and told me that while Boyle did not know much about the Washington pattern, he was going to put him under my wing, and he would appreciate it if I would steer and guide him through the maze of Washington, which I was happy to do. William Boyle became a very successful investigator for the committee. He later became secretary to Senator Truman when his then secretary, Harry Vaughan, had been called to active duty in the Army. So Bill Boyle

[12]

left the committee and worked directly in the office of Senator Truman. He later became an assistant to the chairman of the Democratic National Committee, Bob Hannegan, and then following that became chairman of the national committee.

HESS: Do you recall anything that he may have had a hand in--any particular assignment he may have had in the days of the Truman Committee?

CONNELLY: Well, specifically no, but I think one of the major projects he was on was the housing problem. I know he had worked on other phases of the Defense Program but I'm sure that was one of them.

HESS: How were the various assignments allotted to the committee members, to the staff members?

CONNELLY: Assignments were allotted three ways: either by Senator Truman himself, by Hugh

[13]

Fulton, or by myself.

HESS: Did you try to pick a person who may have some special competence in a field or did it depend on who was available at the time?

CONNELLY: The recruiting was largely done by Charles Patrick Clark who was associate counsel. Charles Clark would interview these boys first; then he'd refer them to me and if we agreed that the fellow had the potential then that fellow was appointed. In some instances members of the committee's staff were recommended by Senators but in most instances on the basic force that we had, it was done through that channel. Sometimes Hugh Fulton also picked his own men for investigators on the committee.

HESS: After the men were already hired and on the committee though, how were the assignments made?

[14]

CONNELLY: It all depended on what we thought each investigator was particularly qualified for. It's hard to say why each one would get a certain assignment. Sometimes it might have been the fact that he would be available when other investigators were engaged in something else.

HESS: Fred Canfil.

CONNELLY: Fred Canfil was an old wartime buddy of Senator Truman. Fred Canfil was on the committee, but Fred Canfil I would not say was one of the most qualified investigators we had on that committee. He was kind of an independent operator and reported only to Senator Truman.

HESS: Only to Senator Truman?

CONNELLY: That's right. If Canfil had a little problem or was getting mixed up in something, Senator Truman would call me and ask me to

[15]

check on this or find out whether Canfil had the facts, could they be corroborated, and in other words, complete the investigation that Canfil had originated.

HESS: Was there any particular field in which he was particularly qualified for?

CONNELLY: Canfil reported directly to Senator Truman. Senator Truman, I don't believe, many times knew what Fred Canfil was doing, but after he would roam around on his own--he never reported to me, he never reported to Fulton--but after he roamed around and got his nose into something, he'd tell that to Senator Truman and then Senator Truman would tell me to check it out.

HESS: A man we mentioned several times, Charles Patrick Clark. Just what was his background?

CONNELLY: Charles Patrick Clark was graduated from

[16]

Georgetown Law School. He had worked on several congressional committees. In fact the first time I met him was as a member of the staff of the then Gillette Committee to Investigate Campaigning Expenditures in 1940, so I got to know him on that committee. Then later he was appointed by Senator Truman to the committee staff and then he became associate counsel.

HESS: Were there any particular areas of investigation that he spent more time on than others?

CONNELLY: No, I don't believe he ever made any investigations. He handled the administrative side of the committee.

HESS: For that matter did Hugh Fulton, who was chief counsel, take part in any of the investigations?

CONNELLY: He took part in some of them on the

[17]

basis of initiating them, but the leg work was left up to the staff members who were investigators.

HESS: The next one in line is William S. Cole.

CONNELLY: William S. Cole was appointed to the committee by Senator Truman through the influence of Senator Owen Brewster of Maine. He was a personal friend of Senator Brewster, and in the interest of harmony--Mr. Truman took a bipartisan attitude toward the committee--he never asked one person who was employed by the committee what his politics were, and Senator Truman insisted it be bipartisan. Cole was a very able lawyer from Maine, and Cole did a very thorough job.

HESS: Hugh Fulton, the next name in line. We've mentioned him several times, but what was Mr. Fulton's background?

[18]

CONNELLY: Mr. Fulton was a graduate of the University of Michigan Law School. He came to the Truman Committee from the Department of Justice. He was an assistant United States Attorney in New York and later, I believe, on one case, the Associated Gas and Electric Company, he was made a special assistant to the Attorney General to prosecute that case in New York. Mr. Fulton came to the committee on the recommendation of the then Attorney General, Robert Jackson. When Senator Truman called Mr. Jackson to his office and told him he was going to have this committee, and he wanted the best lawyer in the Department of Justice to become counsel for him. So that's how Mr. Fulton came into the Truman picture.

HESS: Was he a good chief counsel?

CONNELLY: Hugh Fulton was a very good lawyer, but he was completely inept in the political

[19]

conditions that you must face in any job of that nature working for the Congress of the United States.

HESS: Could you give me an illustration of that statement?

CONNELLY: Mr. Fulton had the opportunity once in a while to step on other people's toes because Mr. Fulton moved pretty quickly--very bright--but sometimes not quite the right judgment.

HESS: Rudolph Halley?

CONNELLY: He was a protege of Mr. Fulton's. He was U.S. Assistant District Attorney in New York and he worked under Mr. Fulton in the case that Mr. Fulton worked on as a special assistant to the Attorney General.

HESS: And then when he resigned in '45, he went into practice with Hugh Fulton, too.

[20]

CONNELLY: That's correct.

HESS: Walter Hehmeyer?

CONNELLY: Walter Hehmeyer was also an appointee of Hugh Fulton's. He was designated to handle the press, because he never had experience in investigation, so he became the press officer with the title of investigator.

HESS: Just how was that done? How was the committee's relationship with the press carried on?

CONNELLY: Well, Hehmeyer was the contact with the working press. In other words, if they wanted to know something about the committee's activities, their first step would be to go see Walter Hehmeyer. He was liaison between the committee and the press.

HESS: Was the relationship between the committee and the press very good?

[21]

CONNELLY: Very good.

HESS: Could you give an illustration?

CONNELLY: Well, an illustration would be after the completion of the first report of the committee, it was very widely seized upon by the press, and after that first report the press picked up more interest. They realized that this was going somewhere and this would be news.

HESS: Were there any problems of information being leaked to the press, information that the committee would really not want to be known?

CONNELLY: Not that I knew of.

HESS: Did Mr. Hehmeyer conduct most of the business himself or was anyone else on the committee assigned to help him in that field?

CONNELLY: He conducted that himself. He reported directly to Fulton.

[22]

HESS: Robert L. Irvin?

CONNELLY: Robert L. Irvin, he was also hired by Charles Clark. He was graduated from the University of Michigan and he was a very able investigator.

HESS: Donald M. Lathrom?

CONNELLY: He was also hired by Clark, so when he arrived on the committee, I talked to him and told him we wanted to know something about what was going on in our program of defense in the Air Corps section, so he was assigned to conduct the investigation of the air program, which he did, and that's the only thing he ever worked on with the committee.

HESS: Did he do a pretty good job on that?

CONNELLY: He did a very good job.

HESS: Frank E. Lowe?

[23]

CONNELLY: Frank E. Lowe was a brigadier general from Maine. Now, exactly how he became tied up with the committee, I do not know, except it was through the influence of Senator Brewster of Maine, also a member of the committee. Lowe's activities were always kind of a mystery to me because he never reported to me, but he established himself as sort of a liaison between the committee and the War Department, so whether he was on the committee's payroll, I don't know but I don't believe he was.

HESS: One of the items I found that concerned General Lowe came from Toulmin's book and he says, "One of the most important factors in the cooperation of the Committee with the War Department was the appointment of Major General (then Brigadier General) Frank E. Lowe. He was not a liaison officer but he was the executive

[24]

officer of the Committee." He served from August 11, '44 to May 16, 1946. That's what Toulmin has about it.

CONNELLY: Well, it may be that he became an executive assistant after I left the committee, this I don't know.

HESS: They called him executive officer, in the lower case, so I don't think that was a specific title.

CONNELLY: He never made any investigations.

HESS: Getting off the track just a little bit, how were the relations between the War Department and the Navy Department and the committee? Were they good or not?

CONNELLY: Initially they were very difficult.

HESS: Why?

CONNELLY: Because the Army and the Navy, as you

[25]

know, are very close knit. They resented any intrusion by a congressional committee or anyone else. During the course of back and forth, the Navy and the Army finally found out that it would not be in their own interest, or the interest of the country, to refuse to cooperate with the committee. As a result of that, the resistance was broken down and we got very good cooperation from the Army and the Navy.

HESS: Do you recall the names of the people that usually carried on the business with the committee, with the War Department and with the Navy Department during those years. When the committee would want to contact somebody in the Navy Department or at the War Department, who would they contact?

CONNELLY: We established liaison with both Departments. General Arthur Wilson was the initial

[26]

contact we had with the War Department. General Wilson had known Senator Truman. General Wilson was then in the office of General Marshall. General Wilson through his intercession and his knowledge of Senator Truman and his intimate relationship with General Marshall was designated by General Marshall to be the liaison from General Marshall's office with the committee. He did a very good job. He brought together without knocking heads the interests of both. He remained in that capacity until the war started and then he went into active service and was transferred to Australia.

HESS: Who took his place?

CONNELLY: Colonel Knowles, Miles Knowles, from Michigan, and he worked with then Under Secretary [Julius H.] Amberg. After General Wilson departed Colonel Knowles took over.

[27]

He worked very closely with the members of the committee and with myself.

HESS: Did he do as creditable a job as his predecessor had done?

CONNELLY: Well, it was difficult in the beginning but gradually, because the ice had been broken, he worked in very well; he was a very bright attorney. I think at one time he was a partner of Amberg who, I believe, was Under Secretary, and I got to know him very well--we got along very well and we cooperated very well.

HESS: Did you have any times that the military was trying to bring some pressure on the committee when the committee was going out to the Army camps and things of that nature and finding evidences of waste?

CONNELLY: No, we never had any objection of that kind. General [Brehon B.] Somervell was then

[28]

moved from Quartermaster to construct all these Army camps. Now, I personally made some of the initial investigations of the Army camp sites that were being constructed, and in each of these General Wilson accompanied me on these investigations.

HESS: Before the Truman Committee was established, Mr. Truman took a trip around to see several Army camps. As I understand, that was one of the reasons behind the establishment of the Truman Committee.

CONNELLY: That's correct. He made a personal investigation of his own and didn't completely like what he saw, and he proposed this investigation. It was voted on and agreed to by the Military Affairs Committee of the Senate.

HESS: Do you recall hearing Mr. Truman speak of that trip?

[29]

CONNELLY: Oh, many times.

HESS: Roughly what did he say?

CONNELLY: Well, to the point that he was not satisfied, he thought that some improvement could be made on what the Army was doing with Army construction, camp construction, and that was the first phase of the investigation of the program that we got into.

HESS: Did you ever hear Mr. Truman sort of put in capsule version what he thought the purpose of the Truman Committee should be?

CONNELLY: He thought the purpose of the Truman Committee should be the investigation of how the program was being constructed, but he did not want any part of telling the armed services how to run the war. He thought that that should be left to the generals.

During the Civil War they had a committee

[30]

to investigate the conduct of the war. Mr. Truman, as you know, was a very good historian, and he did not want any repetition of what happened during the Civil War by any congressional committee.

HESS: You mentioned General Somervell. Do you recall anything in particular about the relations between the committee and General Somervell?

CONNELLY: In the beginning stages General Somervell was very hostile. General Somervell was a very brilliant general, but he was also a martinet, and he resented any intrusion or stepping on his toes, but that did not impress Senator Truman, he went ahead anyway.

But after we completed our survey of camp construction, General Somervell finally agreed, and so testified, that the Truman Committee saved the Government two hundred million dollars

[31]

on Army construction alone.

HESS: Who was the liaison from the Navy Department--we discussed the War Department--do you recall?

CONNELLY: Hugh Fulton handled the Navy Department. He had a friend who had been a law partner of his named Eugene Dunn, who was in the Navy, so Hugh Fulton hand-picked him as the Navy liaison. He served in that capacity while I was there.

HESS: Were the problems with the Navy fundamentally pretty much the same as with the War Department?

CONNELLY: Oh, certainly because this combination--well, let's not say combination but a contrast of interest between civilian and brass, as we call the Navy and the Army.

HESS: Our next man on the list, Harry S. Magee.

CONNELLY: I believe he was hired by Charles Clark. Harry Magee was a very amiable fellow, but I

[32]

would not consider him as one of the top investigators of the committee. I believe his major assignment was to investigate mica mining in connection with defense procurement.

HESS: In your roll as chief investigator did you also take part in investigations or were you more a coordinator of what the other people were supposed to do?

CONNELLY: Both.

HESS: On that, just for a minute, what were a few of the investigations that you personally helped in?

CONNELLY: Well, I personally conducted the initial investigations of new Army camp construction. I covered Fort Stewart in Georgia, Fort Davis in North Carolina, Indiantown Gap in Pennsylvania, and on all of those excursions I was accompanied by General Wilson.

[33]

HESS: What type of conditions did you find?

CONNELLY: Principally, lack of planning. The construction program between the two World Wars was handled by the Quartermaster Corps. Now the Quartermaster Corps in the interim apparently had done nothing. So now they were faced with a big buildup and no plans for it. My first exposure to that was at Fort Stewart in Georgia. They sent a general down there or colonel, I forget now, to initiate the construction, so he reported to the Pentagon--not the Pentagon at that time, the War Department--and he asked for a layout of plans. The only thing he could find was some blueprints of a camp which was designed for World War I and that was for an infantry brigade. He was building a camp for antiaircraft, so he just put the plans under his arm and started from the ground, and had to improvise to complete

[34]

what was required of him. Now the result was they would provide initial allocation of say eight million dollars. That would eventually pyramid into something like twenty to thirty million. It was all done catch as catch can.

HESS: How would you handle a problem when you would go out and find something like that?

CONNELLY: Well, my job was to find out what was going on, so the first thing I would do was report to the camp commander.

HESS: Conditions as they stood then.

CONNELLY: Right. Then I would look at the records-- what the accomplishments were, what the initial cost estimate was, what it developed into, then I would go to civilian appointments. They appointed architect engineers to help the camp commander build the camp, and these were civilian engineers, so, of course, they were always

[35]

in a hassle with the brass, and after I got the camp commanders position, then I would talk to the architect engineers and they were never hesitant to tell me what the truth was, what was going on on that base; so after getting the Army's side and the civilian engineer's side, I got a pretty good picture of what was going on at that camp site. And on that I based my report.

HESS: Did you also make recommendations about what should be done to correct the matters, or did you just report the matters as you found them?

CONNELLY: I never made any recommendations.

HESS: What other investigations come to mind that you worked with?

CONNELLY: Well, I investigated the DuPont operation in Indiana.

HESS: Which one was that?

[36]

CONNELLY: It was near Albany, Indiana. I investigated the construction of a plant, the Hercules Powder Company, in Kansas.

HESS: The Sunflower Ordnance Plant near Lawrence?

CONNELLY: That's right.

HESS: What did you find wrong there, do you recall?

CONNELLY: Faulty construction. I had pictures which I took with a small camera; I had pictures of cracks in the foundation and other defects, and based on that they had a hearing on the thing in Kansas City. It was just cheap, shoddy construction and the Government was paying a good deal for it. They didn't like the fact that I took pictures, and they found out about it the day after I took them. I went back to the base and their Public Information Officer decided he would like to have the pictures or he'd like to have my camera, and that day I

[37]

did not have my camera. The prints of the pictures were already sent to the committee in Washington. On the basis of the pictures alone plus the information I got, they decided to hold a hearing in Kansas City, and the hearing didn't establish anything very good. That was it.

I investigated the Willow Run Plant in Detroit. The Ford Motor Company was making B-24 bombers, and that investigation was with the cooperation of the Ford Motor Company. That was assigned to me by Senator Truman himself because Senator Ferguson was on the committee, and he was from Michigan. So with the cooperation of the Ford people, I was in the plant for about two weeks making my own observations, and because of security they had given me a badge. They looked around at all their executives to find out who I would pass for--they had a badge and photograph of each one. They finally picked one

[38]

of the vice presidents and temporarily took the badge away from him and they gave it to me. I was in that plant about two weeks, and finally I thought it was time to go in and see the colonel who was in charge for the Air Corps, so I walked into his office after two weeks and I identified myself. He says, "What can I do for you?"

I said, "I'd like to talk to you about your program."

So he started in detail to give me the usual story. I said, "Colonel, before you get too much involved, it's only fair to tell you I've been in this plant for two weeks."

"Well, how did you get in here?"

I said, "That's not the point, Colonel. I'm only fair to you. I have been here for two weeks, so forget the book and tell me what's going on."

[39]

HESS: Did he?

CONNELLY: Up to a point. He couldn't kid me. I'd been there, and he knew it. A very funny one, while I was in that plant General [William S.] Knudsen was in charge of the Air Corps production. He arrived at the Willow Run Plant but fortunately I saw him first because that would have caused quite a hoopla because he would have recognized me on sight. He had been in the office of Senator Truman regularly.

HESS: You mentioned an investigation that they held in Kansas City. What was the procedure of setting up these field investigations? Were they usually held on some of these more minor cases?

CONNELLY: You mean on committee hearings?

HESS: Committee hearings, yes.

[40]

CONNELLY: Not unless they thought there was some valid reason for them to make a hearing on the thing not just take an investigative report.

HESS: Now some of the more important hearings such as the Curtiss-Wright, the Canol Project, those were held in Washington, is that right?

CONNELLY: Most of the hearings were held in Washington.

HESS: What would be the criteria for holding one in the field as opposed to holding the hearings in Washington?

CONNELLY: It depended on the interest of the committee and how they voted, whether to have a field hearing or to have it in Washington. That was determined by the committee itself.

HESS: When they would hold one in the field, who

[41]

would go to hold it? Would one of the Senators go?

CONNELLY: Yes, one of the Senators. If it was important enough, the chairman would go, with probably three or four other Senators. The full committee would not go.

HESS: Would Hugh Fulton usually go to the field hearings?

CONNELLY: Yes.

HESS: How was a field hearing conducted? Would Mr. Fulton do most of the cross-examining, or would Senator Truman...

CONNELLY: Mr. Fulton would initiate the examination and each Senator in turn would be provided an opportunity to ask questions that were of interest to him.

HESS: And the next man on our list is Herbert Maletz.

[42]

CONNELLY: Herbert Maletz was hired by Charles Clark. He was a graduate of Harvard Law School and I believe he worked in Washington for about a year or maybe more, not much more, as an attorney. How he became connected with Clark I do not know, but he arrived on the committee and Clark, of course, asked me to screen him which I did and he was appointed, and he developed into one of the most competent investigators the committee had. He has gone on to other activities in Washington. He was in private practice. He was counsel for the antitrust committee of the House, and has now just been appointed to the Court of Claims as a judge.