Oral History Interview with
Executive assistant, War Assets Administration, 1946-48; executive officer, Office of Educational Exchange, 1948, asst. chief, Division of Libraries and Institutes, 1949-50, U.S. Dept. of State; director of personnel, Economic Stabilization Agency (also OPS), 1951; deputy director, Office of Educational Exchange, 1951-52, asst. administrator, International Information Administration, 1952-53, director, International Educational Exchange Service, U.S. Dept. of State, 1953-58; and subsequent service as a Foreign Service officer, 1958-68.
Russell L. Riley
Irvine , California
February 22, 1974
by James R. Fuchs
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These are transcripts of
tape-recorded interviews conducted for the Harry S. Truman Library. A
draft of each transcript was edited by the interviewee but only minor
emendations were made; therefore, the reader should remember that these
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This oral history transcript may be read,
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published in full except by permission of the Harry S. Truman Library.
Opened March, 1976
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Oral History Interview with
Russell L. Riley
by James R.
FUCHS: Mr. Riley, I'd like for you to give me a little bit of
your background: where you were born, your education, your life up to the
time you entered Government service which, I believe, was back around the
RILEY: I was born on a farm near Mendon, Missouri, in Chariton County
about 100 miles east of Kansas City on the Santa Fe line on February 11,
1911. My father was a farmer. A year later we moved to Nebraska and my
became a cowboy on a big ranch in northwestern Nebraska in
McPherson County, 75 miles northwest of North Platte. He finally became
the foreman of that ranch and lived there until I got big enough to go to
school. Then he thought I'd better get into school. I went awhile in 1918,
but the flu epidemic knocked that out, and, so, in 1919 we moved back to
Missouri so we could be closer to school. I went to country schools and
small town schools in Missouri, and finally graduated from high school in
Mendon, having gone earlier to Brunswick, Mo. grammar school. That's a
small town south of Mendon. I graduated from the University of Missouri
with a Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration in 1934. I was
actually in the class of 1933, but I worked my way through school, so I
didn't get my degree until
1934. I worked for Montgomery Ward at the time I finished
school. Then I worked for a small Mendon mercantile company up in Mendon,
Missouri for a short time. In 1934 I went to work for Swift and Company
working out of the St. Joseph, Missouri office as a salesman, and traveled
in southern Nebraska, northern Kansas, southwestern Iowa, and northwestern
Missouri for a year or so. After which I had a territory in Chillicothe,
Missouri. Worked there a couple of years and quit that job around the
first of October, 1937 to go to work in Washington.
FUCHS: How did you happen to do that?
RILEY: Well, when I was at the University of Missouri I took a Civil
Service exam, a clerk's exam, and I passed it. Didn't pass it very high, I
guess. But over a period of
from 1931 to 1937 I received a half dozen or so inquiries from
the Civil Service Commission as to whether I wanted a job working in
Washington and I always said "no." And finally in 1937 I got an inquiry
saying, "This is the last time we're going to ask you if you want to work
for the Government, on this examination. If your answer is 'no' we're
going to take you off of the list."
FUCHS: Were these other inquiries for specific bureaus?
RILEY: I don't remember. I honestly don't remember what any of them
were. But I went to work for the Railroad Retirement Board, at that point,
in Washington, October 7, 1937 as a clerk. And I worked there a while and
was still a clerk but I finally got into the economic section because of
my education and experience.
Then about three and a half months after I went to work there, I
got fired on 24-hours notice along with 472 other people because the
Railroad Retirement Board made a mistake in its bookkeeping system and ran
out of money in the first part of January, 1938. All probationary
appointees, all temporary appointees, and some permanent appointees just
got laid off on 24-hours notice. And that same day I was interviewed by
somebody from the Social Security Board in Baltimore and I never missed a
day's pay. Just transferred over there, still as a clerk, and went to work
over there in the personnel office.
FUCHS: Were they looking for employees or were they just trying to pick
up employees that were being laid off? How did they happen to interview
RILEY: They interviewed everybody who was laid off. They were
looking for employees in Baltimore, old Candler Building in Baltimore. It
was a big operation IBM set up. They were really establishing the Social
FUCHS: They were just getting started?
RILEY: That's right. I've forgotten -- they'd been underway for a year,
18 months, something like that. So, I worked over there from January '38
until February '39. Then I transferred to the Washington office of the
Social Security Board and became Chief of Clerical Placement for the
entire Social Security Board. Shortly after that I was offered a job to
come back to the Railroad Retirement Board at a substantial increase. I
was employed to go to Kansas City,
which was near my home, to help set up the regional office of
the Railroad Retirement Board. So I went there in June of 1939 and we got
that thing pretty well underway. Around the first of October, a fellow
came out from Washington and said, "I have kind of a mess that needs
cleaning up in Chicago, would I go to Chicago?" Of course, I didn't think
that was a very good idea. I was close to home and I'd seen enough of the
Government -- been fired once and only been with it two and one-half years
-- I'll never leave home again; I might not get money to get back home:
But, anyway, they gave me a two grade promotion to go to Chicago. I went
to Chicago and .worked there for four to six months, something like that.
Then they asked me if I'd transfer back to Washington with the Railroad
Retirement Board and I did in
April of 1940. Then I worked there until March of '41, at which
time I went on active duty with the military. I was a Reserve officer.
FUCHS: I have read that you were with the Office of Export Control for
a while in '41. Were you on active duty then?
RILEY: I was on active duty. As a matter of fact, I was hired and
interviewed by the Army Air Corps to go on duty in their personnel office
in March of '41 and as they were processing my papers to call me to active
duty, a field artillery colonel whom I'd known in reserves, a Regular Army
colonel, told me that he was active in setting up the Office of Export
Control, and if I was going on active duty why didn't I come to work for
him. I told him I'd made a commitment to the Army Air
Corps and he said, "I'll handle that." And he did. He got my
orders changed. So I went to work for the Office of Export Control in
March and worked with them until they became demilitarized in about
September or October of that fall. General Russell Maxwell was the head of
this organization, and at that point he went somewhere and they brought
in, I believe it was Milo Perkins from Texas, a bag manufacturer, to head
up this export control and all of us who were in military decided we'd
rather be in military organizations than we would in a civilian
organization, so we sort of abandoned ship.
I went back to the Air Corps and said, "Here I am. I didn't go to work
for you when you wanted me to, but what about it?"
They said, "Sure, we still got a job for you."
So I went to work for the Army Air Corps, and very shortly
thereafter I was made Deputy Director of Civilian Personnel for the entire
Army Air Corps. I stayed there until February of 1943 at which time I
petitioned out of there and got back to my first love which was the field
FUCHS: Had you been in the field artillery reserves?
RILEY: I'd been in reserves since 1933. I was commissioned in the field
artillery reserves in 1933.
FUCHS: This was out of ROTC?
RILEY: This was out of ROTC at the University of Missouri, that's
right. I was always a great admirer of one Colonel Truman, as a matter of
fact, also being an artillery man from
FUCHS: Did you go to summer camps?
RILEY: Yes, I went to summer camp in Des Moines in '36, 1934 and '35 I
couldn't go, I couldn't afford time off. And '36 I went. In '37 I was new
in Washington, I hadn't gotten established there. '38 I went to camp in
Fort Hoyle, Maryland, and '39, I was too busy trying to get the Social
Security Board and the Railroad Retirement Board going and I couldn't
afford to go to camp.
FUCHS: I've forgotten the last year it was that Mr. Truman went. Of
course, after he became Senator he didn't go much.
RILEY: We never were in the same organization . I was in some Omaha
outfit. He was connected
with the same general area.
FUCHS: He went to Fort Riley and that place in Minnesota.
RILEY: Fort Snelling, yes. I was commissioned at Fort Riley, Kansas, of
course, at the east end close to where old Camp Funston was during World
FUCHS: What were your major problems in the Office of Personnel in the
early years of the war, starting around 1942?
RILEY: Well, from '41 to '43 when I was in the Army Air Corps personnel
business, the first major problem was -- I went there in October and as
you know Pearl Harbor hit the first of December. I'd been there about six
weeks. We had to rev up real fast. We thought we were going pretty fast,
but our biggest problem
was getting decentralized. Everything centered in Washington.
If you wanted to hire a typist in Eugene, Oregon we had to set up the job
in Washington and they had to get permission through my particular unit,
that I was in when I first went there, for another $1,200 dollars to hire
one more typist. So the major problem was to get things decentralized and
get regulations out to the field so the people could hire civilian
personnel all over the country. As a matter of fact, I remember one of the
major problems they had was in the Philippines air depot. We had a big air
depot in the Philippines and the Navy was paying so much better salaries
out there for the Filipinos than we, the Army, were. I had all kinds of
negotiations with the Navy and everybody and his dog trying to get our
wages up a little bit
so that we could compete with the Navy. Seems like the Navy has
always traveled a lot better than the artillery, even than the old style
Air Corps, even though I think the new Air Force does very well. To make a
long story short, the Philippine air depot thing was solved by the
Japanese one day, which was very unfortunate. My problem just vanished
over night. I hadn't finished it yet.
But in March of 1943, I went back to my first love and was sent to the
Field Artillery Replacement Training Center in Fort Sill, Oklahoma, took a
refresher course for a few weeks, and immediately after that I was put
into the advanced officer's course, because I was already a major -- had
been since 1942, February. I took the advanced officer's course and that
was a rather rough experience
for me because, really, I was a desk officer and didn't know
much about field artillery; and all at once I find myself competing with a
bunch of officers who had been with troops and had been with the field
artillery and Regular Army and all this type of thing. But I got through
all right and I was told I was in the upper 10 percent of my class,
because I studied about eight or ten hours every night trying to keep up
with the other people while they drank beer.
FUCHS: While they were drinking.
RILEY: That's right. On the weekends I tried to get a drink, but I
didn't have time during the week. So from there I was given an assignment
down in Carolina and sent down, I think, to the 12th Corps headquarters;
and then I was further assigned to a battalion
in Fort Jackson, South Carolina as Executive Officer of the
696th Armored Field Artillery Battalion, self-propelled armored battalion.
That was in the fall of '43 and on February 11, 1944, we landed in
Scotland with this field artillery unit. We trained in England a while and
then in July of '44 we landed at Omaha Beach and we had combat until 1945
in Europe. I volunteered then for the Asiatic theater and came back to
Washington and was sent to the Command and General Staff School in Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas. Our entire class was in training for going to the
Pacific theater and we found ourselves in class when the atomic bomb was
dropped over there and the war was over, the entire World War II, in
August of 1945.
FUCHS: What divisions were you in, in Europe?
RILEY: We were a separate battalion and we were corps troops. We fought
with the Yankee (26th Inf.) Division, with the 2nd Armored Division, the
4th Armored Division, the 6th Armored Division, 3rd Corps, 12th Corps. We
were all over the place. We were a separate battalion, the 696th Armored
Field Artillery Battalion, and they used us as kind of shock troops.
Sometimes we were ahead of the armored infantry. It was kind of a rough
existence being a separate battalion. We never did belong to any outfit,
Anyway, the war was over, and I'm still alive, and I came back and
finally got out of the service in 1946. I met one of the old timers,
actually he was a major when I was a captain, but he worked for me in the
Export Control Office. At one point, as a
captain I had a bunch of Navy commanders and Army majors and
people like that working for me. We were all in civilian clothes. This
one, Major John S. Cooke, who had stayed in the Pentagon, worked himself
up to a colonel -- he was a major in World War I -- and as I was getting
out of the service in January of '46, I ran into him, and he said he was
about to go to War Assets Corporation as vice president and wanted me to
go with him and I did. And that's how I happened to get into War
FUCHS: Who was heading War Assets at that time?
RILEY: I remember Robert M. Littlejohn came in later. He was one of the
fellows. Some general headed War Assets. He was replaced by Robert M.
Littlejohn. He was the Quartermaster General in Europe. He was head of
at one time. And then another wild man who had been the 12th
Corps artillery officer, I've forgotten his name too, but he was head of
it for a while. Anyway, I worked there for two and one-half years,
something like that, roughly.
FUCHS: What was your title there?
RILEY: I was Executive Assistant to the man who had consumer goods
sales. I think he was vice president for Consumer Goods, something like
that. And then he became a different -- War Assets first had a president
and vice president, and then they had administrators. I think it became an
administration instead of a corporation.
FUCHS: What did your work entail there?
RILEY: Generally, we had all the consumer sales
division under our office and we had to knock heads together
and keep everybody happy and try to -- just general management of a bunch
of sales divisions. I never was very good at explaining what I did. I
seemed to work 12-15 hours a day, but I couldn't tell you during the day
what I'd accomplished.
FUCHS: Do you have any reflections about the way our war assets were
handled? Do you think it was done properly?
RILEY: Yes, I think our war assets were handled reasonably well. It's a
tremendous job and you have millions of pounds and millions of square
yards and millions of dollars worth of stuff. Maybe it's worth three cents
on the dollar, but it will cost fifty cents on the dollar just to store
it. So you're wise to get rid of it; let somebody else take
over the headache of storing it. The Government wasn't
prepared, of course, to use it, so you had to get rid of it. I'm sure lots
of people made millions of dollars, millions and millions of dollars on
it, and yet it would cost the United States Government that much to keep
it and it was useless to us. I remember one interesting thing. During the
course of that experience we found somewhere around Washington a bunch of
World War I horse-drawn ambulances still stored in a field. We got rid of
them. It would have been smart if somebody would have been wise and gotten
rid of them in 1919 instead of waiting until 1946 to get rid of them. I'm
sure they paid rent on that pasture or wherever they were. I didn't see
them but I know it to be a fact.
That's about all I can comment on war
assets. I thought it was an interesting experience. We had some
good businessmen helping us. Of course, I believe that the average civil
servant is a pretty dedicated person, I've always felt that way. Maybe
it's a reflection of myself because I always had a great respect for the
taxpayer. But I've found that a lot of businessmen who came in were
extremely dedicated and almost to the man, of the people I met, they were
impressed with the general caliber of the average civil servant. I've had
any number of them say to me or in my presence, you know, "When I was in
business I used to think that the Government had a bunch of deadwood but
I've met as many dedicated people in the United States Government as I've
met in my own firm."
And I think this is probably true. I'm dedicated to that fact anyway.
FUCHS: Any major problems that you recall in the
RILEY: No, I don't recall any. We were always, of course, very alert to
prevent any of our Federal employees who were working with it getting
entangled in any way. That was a preoccupation in the Administration,
being sure that our compliance people would be on top of anybody going
crooked. This was kind of an experience, too. You always wondered when
some prospective buyer would come in at what point was he going to offer
you something under the table. And there you'd be. Maybe it was somebody
you knew and had known for sometime, maybe you felt rather friendly toward
him. But you had to decide that if that ever happens, I'm going to turn
the son of a bitch in. I mean that's all. I never had a proposition made
to me. There was one fellow who was very
friendly with me; he was kind of a slimy type of guy and I was
always afraid he was going to, but he never did. I told my secretary one
day, "Don't ever leave me alone with him if you can possibly keep from it.
I want somebody around." But he never made a pass at me on any kind of a
This was one of the preoccupations of the Administration at that time
and I think it speaks fairly high for not only the War Assets
administration but for civil servants in general.
Notwithstanding, things like this mess going on in Watergate and things
like that, I think the average civil servant probably even today is pretty
FUCHS: Then you went to the...
RILEY: State Department.
FUCHS: How did that come about? This was '48?
RILEY: Yes, 1948. I, of course, realized that the War Assets was in its
waning stages and I was looking around for another Government job. I had
pretty much decided by this point that I was going to stay in the
Government, although I had never until about this time made up my mind
that I was going to make a career of the Government. I don't think I
entirely made it up then. But a fellow who worked for me in the Railroad
Retirement Board back in 1939 was working in the personnel office of the
State Department. A rather menial position. But he called me at my house
one day and said, "I understand they're setting up a new office over in
our Department" -- the State Department -- "and I understand this is the
man you might go to see about it."
Well, to make a long story short, I got a job. I saw a lot of
people, and I got a job in helping set up what was called the Office of
Educational Exchange. The Smith-Mundt Act had been passed in January of
1948 I believe that was this god-awful 80th Congress, wasn't it?
FUCHS: The 80th Congress was '47 to '48, because Mr. Truman castigated
the 80th Congress in his campaign in '48.
RILEY: Yes, that's right. Anyway, Senator H. Alexander Smith from New
Jersey and Karl Mundt, who was a Congressman at that time from South
Dakota, sponsored this legislation, and so we had in '48 -- January I
think -- President Truman signed the Smith-Mundt Act, which provided for
the cultural and informational part of the United States Government. This
was the beginning of the Voice of
America, International Press Service, the International
Broadcasting Service, which was the Voice of America, the overseas
libraries, binational institutes, the educational exchange program --
which I eventually headed -- and the motion picture service. Those were
the five media provided for under the Smith-Mundt Act. So I went to work
organizing the Office of Educational Exchange, which was made up of the
library service and the exchange of persons service. I was the first
employee actually on the payroll of the combined Office of Educational
Exchange. All the other people were detailed to it from the State
Department. Since I came from the outside, we had to set up my job, and I
became Executive Officer and helped set that up in '48 and '49. We had
three principal parts of it. The exchange of persons program, the
libraries, and binational
institutes program, and then an office -- I don't remember the
name of it, but it was dedicated to cultural relations mainly in the
Latin-American area. After working there as Executive Officer for several
months, I was made Assistant Chief for the libraries operation and worked
on that for about six or eight months. Then the Korean war hit -- maybe I
worked longer than that. I think I did, I worked from the summer of 1949
until December of 1950. When the Korean war came along, they set up the
Economic Stabilization Agency, which included the Office of Price
Stabilization, and the Office of Wage Stabilization. President Truman had
Eric Johnston heading that, I believe, and then he brought Mike DiSalle in
to head up the Office of Price Stabilization. A friend of mine became
assistant administrator of that and invited me to come over and apply for
the job and I became
Director of Personnel for the Office of Price
FUCHS: Who was that you knew in the office?
RILEY: Richard Francis Cook. Dick Cook.
FUCHS: What was his position?
RILEY: He was Assistant Director of Price Stabilization for Management
or Administration or whatever the title was. He had personnel and various
other types of administrative-managerial kind of control in the outfit.
So, I applied for a job and got it, and became Director of Personnel. At
this point, this was before Mike DiSalle's time, I guess. I've forgotten
the fellow's name. He left about the day he hired me, I think, and Mike
DiSalle took over. Mike didn't hire me. I've forgotten that fellow's name.
Anyway, before I was made Director
of Personnel, I had to have White House clearance. This was the
first time in my career I'd ever had anything approaching political
clearance. I was sent over to the White House to be interviewed by Donald
Dawson and Don made it abundantly clear from the very beginning that they
were hiring a personnel director and they expected me to operate under
Civil Service rules and regulations, no hanky-panky, and no ward-heeling
type of political appointments, this type of thing. They wanted a clean
operation. He also informed me that it was customary at times for
different people who worked in and around the White House to call up
various agencies and say, "This is 'Joe Bloke' from the White House," and
ask people to do things. But he said, in personnel administration in the
Government, nobody at the White House spoke for the White House except the
President and Don Dawson and Don Dawson's secretary
on his behalf. I understood that and told him I appreciated
that. I had a rather interesting experience one day. John Steelman called
me up and announced on the telephone who he was and began to ask me to do
some things and I didn't know whether it was a trap or not. I had great
respect for John Steelman but I felt obligated to inform him that I'd been
ordered by Don Dawson not to take any direction from the White House
except from those three people that I mentioned. So I informed John
Steelman of that and that's the last I ever heard from him. I don't know
whether he accomplished his mission or not through some other source.
FUCHS: Did you know him personally?
RILEY: I didn't know John Steelman. I'd seen him,
but I didn't know him.
FUCHS: Subsequently, did you have much contact with Donald Dawson?
RILEY: No, I talked to him on the phone probably three more times in
the several months I was there. His secretary called many times and
referred people to me, because there were lots of people always being
referred, I mean coming to the White House looking for referral; and we
were hiring a lot of people. In a period of about six months, we hired
11,000 people all over the United States and staffed some 45 regional and
district offices. All these people were hired under Civil Service rules
and regulations. Needless to say, we were extremely busy and we were
working many 20-hour days in our personnel office, and I think I worked
hours than anybody. I've always felt that if you're going to
lead a bunch of people you've got to set an example, and I did. But of all
the referrals that I had from the White House, I never had but one
pressure case. And Don Dawson's secretary -- I've forgotten her name --
called me and said, "Mr. Riley, I hate to put any pressure on you but I
have somebody I'd like to recommend here. He's been pestering us to death
and so is the Republican National Committee." She said, "If you can do
anything for him, I'd really appreciate it."
I said, "Send him over."
And she sent him over and, notwithstanding the fact that he was a
Republican, he was a good man and we hired him. I don't even remember his
name now; but we had a spot for him. He was qualified. I thought this
of characterized the Truman administration in a sense.
Newspapers blasted Truman for this and that, and he was criticized for
sticking by his friends and a few things like that, which I think is very
commendable. But I think by and large he was an extremely honest man, and
I think this permeated the entire administration during his duty. The
White House never put any pressure on me, as I say, on this small job that
I had in hiring some 11,000 people in six months, except once and it was a
bona fide bit of pressure. They just wanted to get somebody off their neck
and thought somebody should hire him. They told me he looked like he was
well-qualified when they sent him over.
FUCHS: Were you in touch with Mike DiSalle occasionally or
RILEY: Very frequently. He was a great guy, a great guy. He had
the best morale in that Price Stabilization Office of, I think, about
anyplace I ever saw. He was a leader. He was friendly. He handled himself
extremely well with the Congress and extremely well with the press. I
think by and large he was well thought of and this permeated his entire
organization. People were happy working for him because they knew they had
a person in there who was a good, honest, hard-working leader.
In personnel business you get down in the dumps because you have a lot
of pressure put on you from time to time. You know, operating people they
all want to get their secretary another $10,000 a year and things like
this. When I'd get down in the dumps and really needed to be perked up a
bit, I'd just go over and have a little chat with Mike DiSalle,
say on Saturday afternoon. He worked seven days a week. He really led that
outfit. And I would go over and talk with him for a few minutes and he
would kind of buttress up my morale and get me feeling better. He was a
real great person.
FUCHS: In this State Department position, where you were Assistant
Chief of Libraries and
RILEY: Binational Institutes. Going back to 1938 or '39 there was a law
which provided for certain cultural cooperation with the other American
Republics, and under that the Government assisted in setting up in Latin
America binational institutes generally in binational libraries. They put
a bunch of American books down there and they'd have classes in English
and classes in American literature,
and things like that. The local people would attend them, and
there would be binational employees both North Americans, United States
citizens, and South Americans working in them. For example, I understand
that they taught English in Mexico City and they had such a big -- I've
forgotten, hundreds of people went to study English at this binational
institute in Mexico City. This was pretty well throughout Latin America;
it was part of our public posture during the war to keep this going. And
during the Nelson Rockefeller days of cooperation with the other American
republics, we nurtured this type of thing. Finally, when the Smith-Mundt
Act was passed, these things came under our general aegis and we had the
Division of Libraries and Institutes developed and that's the outfit I was
FUCHS: Was this augmented under the Smith-Mundt Act?
RILEY: Under the Smith-Mundt Act we got our first appropriation for
exchange of persons and things like that. Previously the Fulbright Act had
been passed in 1946 and there was no dollar appropriation for that until
the Smith-Mundt Act came along, and that gave some dollar appropriations
to help out on the Fulbright exchange program; and that became part of
this Office of Educational Exchange, too, the Fulbright Act. As a matter
of fact, starting in '48 we began to set up these Fulbright programs
around over the world, and this act provided for binational commissions to
run them in the foreign countries. So, you'd have the American ambassador
usually as the chairman of this commission, and you'd have some of the
leading local educators on it, and maybe one or two
other American businessmen or American diplomats. You would
have a four to five to seven man binational board, and then we'd sign an
agreement with the country to use foreign currencies that we owned in
their country, so to speak, because of war surplus or some other thing
that they owed us for, lend-lease type of things . So that was the
Fulbright Act in a nutshell.
But then we worked it hand in glove with the Smith-Mundt Act. Finally
in January of 1952, they reorganized all of this element of the State
Department under what was then called the United States International
Information Administration, and that was part of the State Department. At
that point, we set up these various services on a more clear
organizational pattern. The International Broadcasting Service, generally
known as the
Voice of America. The International Press and Publications
Service, which was dedicated to exchange of publications, nurturing press
relations with other countries, and things like this. Putting out American
literature. The International Motion Picture Service which did the same
thing with movies and audiovisual things. And the Libraries and Institutes
Service, called the Information Center Service. That was the one I had
been Assistant Chief of before, but by this time I was Deputy Director of
the parent office after I'd come out of the Office of Price Stabilization.
In August of 1951 I was invited to come back to the State Department as
the Deputy Director of this Office of Educational Exchange. And then in
January of 1952, when we