In this lesson, students will work with the party platforms for the four major parties participating in the Election of 1948 (Democratic, Republican, States’ Rights Democratic, and Progressive parties). The students will use questions to determine the position each party took on a variety of issues, and then compare and contrast the platforms to come to an understanding of the issues facing the United States in this pivotal election.
In each presidential election year, political parties determine their platforms and disseminate them to the public to present the party’s vision of what the United States should become. By analyzing the platforms from the Election of 1948, the students will be able to draw conclusions about how the party platforms shaped the events of the early Cold War period. This, in turn, should make the students more comfortable in critically analyzing today’s party platforms in order to become informed citizens and voters.
- critically analyze one of the four party platforms used during the Election of 1948.
- compare and contrast the four party platforms in a group discussion.
- draw conclusions about the purpose and goals behind each party platform to discern each party’s ultimate goal in the Election of 1948.
- Kansas State Social Studies Standards – U.S. History, Benchmark 3, Indicator 3 (High School)
- Kansas State Social Studies Standards – U.S. History, Benchmark 3, Indicator 5 (High School)
- Kansas State Social Studies Standards – U.S. History, Benchmark 5, Indicator 3 (High School)
- Kansas State Social Studies Standards – Civics & Government, Benchmark 4, Indicator 1 (High School)
2. Continuity and change in the history of Missouri, the United States and the world
6. Relationships of the individual and groups to institutions and cultural traditions
7. The use of tools of social science inquiry (such as surveys, statistics, maps, documents)
- Survey U.S. History II – The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (McDougal Littell), Chapter 18, Section 1 “Origins of the Cold War” (pp. 602-608) and Chapter 19, Section 1 “Postwar America” (pp. 634-639)
- AP U.S. History II – The American Nation: A History of the United States, 11th edition (Longman), Chapter 29 “The American Century” (pp. 761-772)
Party platforms for each of the four parties fielding a major candidate in the Election of 1948 – The platforms for the Democratic, Republican and States’ Rights Democratic parties can be obtained online at the website of The American Presidency Project (http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/). Click on the “Documents” link at the top right of the home page, and then click on “Party Platforms” under the Document Archive section on the left side of the webpage. The platform of the Progressive party has been attached to this lesson plan. It was excerpted from the New York Times publication of the Progressive Party platform on July 25, 1948.
Whiteboard and markers
- This lesson fits in the middle of the unit on the early Cold War. The students will have already discussed the post-World War II economic situation in the United States and will have also studied the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine.
- For homework the night before, the students will review the information in Chapter 18, Section 1 and Chapter 19, Section 1 (for Survey U.S. History) or for Chapter 29, pp. 761-772 (AP U.S. History).
- Randomly distribute the platforms of the Democratic Party, the Republican Party and the Progressive Party. Have the students form groups based upon which platform they hold. Give each group time to read their assigned platform. Then, as a group, have the students answer the following questions:
- How does this party address the issue of civil rights? Give 2 examples.
- What foreign policy issues are important to this party? Give 4 examples.
- What domestic policy issues are important to this party? Give 4 examples.
- How does this party respond to communism? Give 2 examples.
- Each group should select 2 members to place their answers to the questions on the whiteboard. Once the details of each platform have been placed on the board, lead the students in a discussion comparing and contrasting the three platforms. Encourage the students to look for similarities and differences, especially with regard to civil rights and communism.
- Once the class has adequately compared the 3 platforms, distribute one copy of the States’ Rights Democratic Party platform to each student. Read the platform together, as it is significantly shorter than the other platforms. Together, discuss the four questions mentioned above, and compare this platform with the other three.
- Ask the class to think about the following questions: “What role did each party expect to play in the Election of 1948? Did the party expect to win or was their primary role that of a spoiler? How do you know this?” Allow for discussion on these questions.
- For AP U.S. History: Follow all of the above steps, except for the beginning of step 3. I will distribute all four platforms to my AP students 2-3 days ahead of time, and expect each student to have read each platform before class. They should be prepared to discuss all 4 platforms in detail. When the students arrive in class, they will be divided into 4 groups and immediately address the 4 questions mentioned in step 3 above.
Excerpt from the Progressive Party Platform – Election of 1948
Source: “Text of the Platform as Approved for Adoption Today by the Progressive Party,” New York Times, July 25, 1948
Peace, Freedom and Abundance Preamble
Three years after the end of the second World War the drums are beating for a third. Civil liberties are being destroyed. Millions cry out for relief from unbearably high prices. The American way of life is in danger.
The root cause of this crisis is big business control of our economy and government.
With toil and enterprise the American people have created from their rich resources the world’s greatest productive machine. This machine no longer belongs to the people.
Never before have so few owned so much at the expense of so many.
Ten years ago Franklin Delano Roosevelt warned: The liberty of a democracy is not safe if the people tolerate the growth of private power to a point where it becomes stronger than their democratic state. That, in its essence, is fascism.
Today that private power has constituted itself an invisible government which pulls the strings of its puppet Republican and Democratic parties. Two sets of candidates compete for votes under the outworn emblems of the old parties. But both represent a single program – a program of monopoly profits through war preparations, lower living standards and suppression of dissent.
Leaders of the Past Invoked
For generations the common man of America has resisted this concentration of economic and political power in the hands of a few. The greatest of America’s political leaders have led the people into battle against the money power, the railroads, the trusts, the economic royalists.
We of the Progressive party are the present-day descendants of these people’s movements and fighting leaders. We are the political heirs of Jefferson, Jackson and Lincoln – of Frederick Douglass, Altgeld and Debs – of “Fighting Bob” LaFollette, George Norris, and Franklin Roosevelt.
With the firm conviction that the principles of the Declaration of Independence and of the Constitution of the United States set forth all fundamental freedoms for all people and secure the safety and well-being of our country, the Progressive party pledges itself to safeguard these principles to the American people.
Throughout our history new parties have arisen where the old parties have betrayed the people. As Jefferson headed a new party to defeat the reactionaries of his day, and as Lincoln led a new party to victory over the slaveowners, so today the people, inspired and led by Henry Wallace, are creating a new party.
The Progressive party is born of necessity – the necessity of securing peace, freedom, and abundance for the American people.
Betrayal by the Old Parties
The American people want peace.
But the old parties, obedient to the dictates of monopoly and the military, prepare for war in the name of peace.
They refuse to negotiate a settlement of differences with the Soviet Union.
They reject the United Nations as an instrument for promoting world peace and reconstruction.
They use the Marshall Plan to rebuild Nazi Germany as a war base and to subjugate the economies of other European countries to American big business.
They finance and arm corrupt, fascist governments in China, Greece, Turkey, and elsewhere through the Truman doctrine, wasting billions in American resources and squandering America’s heritage as the enemy of despotism.
They encircle the globe with military bases which other peoples cannot but view as threats to their freedom and security.
They protect the war-making industrial and financial barons of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, and restore them to power.
They stockpile atomic bombs.
They pass legislation to admit displaced persons, discriminating against Catholics, Jews, and other victims of Hitler.
They impose a peacetime draft and move toward universal military training . . . .
Principles of the Progressive Party
The Progressive party is born in the deep conviction that the national wealth and national resources of our country belong to the people, who inhabit it and must be employed in their behalf: that freedom and opportunity must be secured equally to all: that the brotherhood of man can be achieved and the scourge of war ended.
The Progressive party holds that basic to the organization of world peace is a return to the purpose of Franklin Roosevelt to seek areas of international agreement rather than disagreement. It was his conviction that within the framework of the United Nations different social and economic systems can and must live together. If peace is to be achieved capitalist United States and communist Russia must establish good relations and work together.
The Progressive party holds that it is the first duty of a just government to secure for all the people, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, national background, political belief or station in life, the inalienable rights proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence and guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. The Government must actively protect these rights against the encroachments of public and private agencies. . . . .
End the Drive to War.
The Progressive party calls for the repeal of the peacetime draft and the rejection of universal military training.
We call for the immediate cessation of the piling up of armament expenditures beyond reasonable peacetime requirements for national defense.
We demand the repudiation of the Truman Doctrine and an end to military and economic intervention in support of reactionary and fascist regimes in China, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East and Latin America.
We call for the abandonment of military bases designed to encircle and intimidate other nations.
We demand the repeal of the provisions of the National Security Act which are mobilizing the nation for war, preparing a labor draft, and organizing a monopoly militarist dictatorship.
These measures will express the American people’s determination to avoid provocation and aggression. They will be our contribution to the reduction of mistrust and the creation of a general atmosphere in which peace can be established.
The Progressive party will work for realize Franklin Roosevelt’s ideal of the United Nations as a world family of nations, by defending its Charter and seeking to prevent its transformation into the diplomatic or military instrument of any one power or groups of powers.
We call for the establishment of a United Nations reconstruction and development fund to promote international recovery by providing assistance to the needy nations of Europe and Asia, without political conditions and with priorities to those peoples that suffered most from Axis aggression.
We call for the repudiation of the Marshall Plan . . . .
The Progressive party will work through the United Nations for a world disarmament agreement to outlaw the atomic bomb, bacteriological