Brief lecture, document analysis, creation of museum exhibit on McCarthyism.
The purpose of this lesson is to evaluate the political, social and cultural impact of McCarthyism in America.
- Students will evaluate the impact of McCarthyism on American society and politics.
- Students will enhance their abilities to analyze primary sources.
- Students will compile and condense information and enhance visual presentation skills.
Missouri Show-Me Standards: This lesson meets the following state standards:
- Social Studies 2: continuity and change in the history of Missouri, the United States and the world
- Social Studies 6: relations of the individual and groups to institutions and cultural traditions
- Social Studies 7: the use of tools of social science inquiry
- Goal 1.4: use technological tools and other resources to locate, select and organize information
- Goal 1.5: comprehend and evaluate written, visual and oral presentations and works
- Goal 2.1: plan and make written, oral, and visual presentations for a variety of purposes and audiences
- Goal 4.1: explain reasoning and identify information used to support decisions
KANSAS STANDARDS (High School-US History)
Benchmark 3: The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of individuals, groups, ideas, developments, and turning points in the era of the Cold War (1945-1990).
5. (A) analyzes domestic life in the United States during the Cold War era (e.g., McCarthyism, federal aid to education, interstate highway system, space as the New Frontier, Johnson’s Great Society).
Benchmark 5: The student engages in historical thinking skills.
1. (A) analyzes a theme in United States history to explain patterns of continuity and change over time.
2. (A) develops historical questions on a specific topic in United States history and analyzes the evidence in primary source documents to speculate on the answers.
Red Scared! (by Michael Barson and Steven Heller, Chronicle Books, 2001), CNN Cold War website (http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/cold-war/)
McCarran Act, McCarthy’s telegram to President Truman re. Lincoln Day Speech (Feb. 11, 1950), draft of Truman’s response to McCarthy’s telegram, letter from Mrs. G.C. Hemphill to President Truman (August 23, 1951), images of anti-communist propaganda, film lobby cards, McCarthy hearings, etc.
Computers with internet and database access
- Students will have read the text selection on the Cold War at home prior to class. (The text used in this lesson is America Past and Present, by Robert Divine, revised 6th edition, 2003.) The selection focuses on the rise and fall of McCarthy, with mention of Alger Hiss, the Smith Act, the Rosenbergs and Truman’s Fair Deal
- Briefly review reading and earlier lessons on the origins of the Cold War, post-war aid to Europe, Cold War in Asia. Discuss how the fear of communism at home was connected both to the events outlined in the text and the events discussed in prior lessons.
- Brief lecture/discussion (based on Ellen Schrecker’s points)
- Summarize story of the firing of seaman Lawrence Parker, as discussed in Schrecker’s paper, “The Red Scare and McCarthyism.” Ask students if they think the firing was justified – brief discussion.
- Myths of McCarthyism – product of McCarthy, monolithic, populist movement, ordinary victims w/no ties to communism, linked only to Cold War. Review Red Scare of 1919 and Palmer Raids and popularity of communism during the Depression.
- Fear of communist subversion, espionage, sabotage – Discuss what events described in the assigned portion of the text would support these fears (subversion – communists in government? Did the conviction of Hiss heighten this fear? espionage – Rosenbergs; sabotage – post-war labor strikes)
- Punishments associated with McCarthyism – mostly loss of jobs, although many consider the Loyalty Oaths to be punitive (if time, show scene from Good Night and Good Luck in which employees discuss frustration with Loyalty Oath).
- McCarthyism impacted culture – movies w/Anti-communist themes, fear of blacklist led many movies, books, songs, etc. to remain unpublished. Anti-Communist propaganda grew.
- Documenting McCarthyism through a museum exhibit
- Students should analyze some documents associated with McCarthyism – McCarthy’s speech in which he announces he has a list of communists in government, McCarthy’s telegram to Truman, Truman’s drafted response and the McCarran Act. Students will read and discuss the documents in small groups to determine the significance of their messages.
- Provide visual examples of cultural impact (images attached, taken from CNN Cold War website, as well as Red Scared). Explain that some of these items appear in the Truman Library’s exhibit on McCarthyism.
- Instruct students to compile documents and images depicting the political, social and cultural impact of McCarthyism. They should use any print sources available in library (such as Red Scared) and conduct searches of reputable Internet sites (such as CNN’s Cold War site, NARA, Library of Congress) and on-line databases. Their research should guide them to answer the overarching question: What was the political, social and cultural impact of McCarthyism in America?
- Students should have a minimum of 10 pieces – including at least 2 primary source documents. Upon finding their pieces, they should organize them into a museum exhibit – sketching a “storyboard” of the exhibit, placing the images on the page and writing the appropriate text to accompany the documents and images. The exhibit must answer the overarching question above.
- Museum exhibit assignment may be completed in class if the teacher desires or as homework. When students turn them in, other students will view the exhibit sketch/outline and read the text. Students will evaluate a peer’s exhibit based on the “Analyzing Museum Exhibit” form.
- Discuss the exhibits as a class. Students should be able to defend their exhibits and explain their reasoning behind their organization. (A brief written explanation/defense may be added at teacher’s discretion.) Discussion should lead to questions connecting McCarthyism to previous lessons – Korea, fall of China.
Museum exhibits will be scored according to the attached scoring guide.
Scoring Guide: Museum Exhibit on McCarthyism
Excellent Good Average Poor
- The artifacts were 8 6 4 2
to reflect the political,
social and cultural
impact of McCarthyism
2. The artifacts are well- 4 3 2 1
organized to tell a
clear and coherent
3. The text that
accompanies the 4 3 2 1
artifacts is clear,
concise and adds
meaning to the exhibit.
4. The presentations is 4 3 2 1
neat and professional
Points deducted for failure to include at least two primary documents in exhibit.
Analyzing Museum Exhibit
Name of designer: _________________________________________________
What is the general theme or story line of the exhibit? ___________________________
Select one artifact to analyze________________________________________________
Is this an actual artifact or a reproduction? _____actual _____ reproduction
Describe its physical qualities: ______________________________________________
What was its function or purpose? ___________________________________________
How does this object fit into the theme or tell the exhibit’s story? __________________
What other objects are nearby? ______________________________________________
How do they all tie together? ________________________________________________
Read the object’s label and evaluate its quality. Enough information? Too much? _____
Describe how the exhibit is organized. Is the organization effective to the exhibit’s story? __________________________________________________________________
How might you present this exhibit differently? ________________________________