- This lesson can be integrated into the classroom through any or all of the following strategies: activities by individual students through cross-curricular activities with Language Arts and/or cooperative learning endeavors.
- Students will use computer technology to analyze Internet websites containing primary sources that contain a variety of documents related to President Ford and his advisors concerning what actions to take during the closing days of the Vietnam War
- To assist students in developing analytical skills that will enable them to evaluate primary sources such as documents and political cartoons related to decisions made by President Ford’s administration during the final days of the Vietnam War
- To introduce students to the Stanford History Educational Group’s Reading Like A Historian teaching strategies to help them investigate historical questions by employing the following reading strategies: Sourcing, Contextualizing, corroborating and close reading
- Evaluate historical data through the use of primary source documents and political cartoons
- Develop a sense of historical understanding of the decisions made by President Ford’s and his advisors during the closing days of the Vietnam War
- Analyze how written documents helped shape historical perspectives of the closing days of the Vietnam War
K-12 History: Students will develop and apply historical knowledge and skills to research, analyze, and understand key concepts of past, current, and potential issues and events at the local, state, national, and international levels.
- SS 12.4.2.c (US) Analyze and evaluate the appropriate uses of primary and secondary sources
- SS 12.4.3.a (US) Analyze and evaluate how multiple perspectives facilitate the understanding of the full story of US history
- SS 12.4.3.b (US) Compare and contrast primary and secondary sources to better understand multiple perspectives of the same event
- SS 12.4.4.a (US) Compare and evaluate contradictory historical narratives of Twentieth-Century U.S. History through determination of credibility, contextualization, and corroboration
- SS 12.4.4.d (US) Analyze and evaluate multiple causes and effects of key events in US history (e.g., Vietnam Conflict}
- SS 12.4.5.b (US) Obtain, analyze, evaluate, and cite appropriate sources for research about Twentieth-Century U.S. History, incorporating primary and secondary sources (e.g., Cite sources using a prescribed format.)
- SS 12.4.5.c (US) Gather historical information about the United States (e.g., document archives, artifacts, newspapers, interviews)
Key Ideas and Details
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.3 Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.
Craft and Structure
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.5 Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.6 Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.8 Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.9 Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
Cold War Project in Vietnam. : ’The Vietnam-Era Presidency’. Opper Project.
Library of Congress. Analyze A Written Document.
Library of Congress. Teaching with Primary Sources.
Mandell, Nikki. “Thinking Like A Historian : A Framework for Teaching and Learning.” OAH Magazine of History. April. 2008. Pp. 55-61.
Marlette, Doug . “Gerald Ford. Lessons of the Past in Vietnam” Political Cartoon
Awesome stories. https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/155990
National Archives. Document Analysis Worksheets
Rubric for Evaluating the Stanford Historical Thinking Chart.
UMBC Center for History Education, 2013. Adapted from the work of the Stanford History Education Group ® and Bruce VanSledright, Assessing Historical Thinking and Understanding: Innovative Ideas for New Standards, (New York: Routledge, 2014). http://www.umbc.edu/che/arch/images/ARCH_Historical_Thinking%20Skills_Rubric_Secondary_rev_2-17-14.pdf
Stanford History Education Group. Beyond the Bubble.
Stanford History Education Group. Reading Like A Historian
SOCC. Visual Image Analysis (Chart)
Vietnam Era -Era Presidents: Cartoon Analysis Worksheet. Opper Project.